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TQM – Total Quality Management
The term “TQM” or Total Quality Management appeared in the 60s and defined Japanese approach to the management of companies. This approach meant continuous improvement of quality in various scopes of company activities - production, procurement, sales, organization of work, etc. TQM is considered as a philosophy of company management in the modern sense.
TQM is neither a system, nor a tool, nor a management process.
Total Quality Management involves various theoretical principles and practical methods, tools of quantitative and qualitative data analysis, elements of economic theory and process analysis. They are pointed at one objective - continuous quality improvement.
TQM can be defined as an approach to company management which focused on quality. Quality is achieved through the involvement of all personnel into improvement activities. The objective of quality improvement is customer's satisfaction and benefits all stakeholders (employees, owners, subcontractors, suppliers, society).
Many companies build quality systems based on the TQM philosophy. These systems are called TQM systems. But it is pay attention to the difference between philosophy of TQM and the quality systems based on it.
The principles of TQM
The philosophy of Total Quality Management is based on several basic principles. Understanding and implementing in practice these principles allows organizations to do the "right" things the first time.
These principles included in ISO 9000 standards with some changes.
A strategy for using TQM
Several strategies can be used to develop a quality management system based on the TQM philosophy. The company can select the most appropriate strategy based on conditions of work.
TQM implementation methodology
Each organization is unique in relation of culture, management practices, processes used to create products or provide services. There is no single approach to implementing TQM. The approach changes from one organization to another. There are however several key elements of the TQM implementation methodology:
1. Top management should study TQM and decide to follow the TQM philosophy. TQM philosophy should be positioned as an essential part of the organization's strategy.
2. The organization should assess the existing level of corporate culture, the level of customer satisfaction, and assess the condition of the quality management system.
3. Top management should identify key principles and priorities and communicate this information to all employees of the organization.
4. It is necessary to develop a strategic plan for the implementation of the TQM philosophy in the organization.
5. The organization must identify priority customer requirements and align products or services with those requirements.
6. It is necessary to create processes map that can help organization to meet the requirements of customers.
7. Top management should create teams to improve the processes.
8. It is necessary to promote self-management process improvement teams.
9. Management of organization should demonstrated leadership to the implementation of the TQM philosophy.
10. It is necessary to perform continuous, daily control of business processes and their normalization. Normalization – it means the stable execution of processes with minimal deviations from the established requirements.
11. It is necessary to regularly assess the progress of the TQM implementation plan and correct it if there is a need for change.
12. Keep employees informed of changes in processes. It is necessary to stimulate employees to make suggestions for improvement.
TQM implementation problems
Implementation of TQM philosophy has a number of problems that significantly reduce the effectiveness of changes. The most common problems include the following:
There are other problems that significantly complicate the implementation of TQM.
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